I'm not an expert in Canadian law. However, in the U.S., and keeping in mind Pleplus' answer regarding the 1-year filing window after disclosure of your device, and assuming that your disclosure is sufficient (see my above comment calling that into question): I think your biggest problem is going to be getting over an obviousness objection.
Searching Google for "wireless mouse charging" and "wireless mouse charger" I get many results.
So while it's not impossible that you would get a narrow patent after a few rejections, an examiner would almost certainly argue right away that your invention would be obvious to one skilled in the art (i.e., an electrical engineer or the like).
The idea of wirelessly-charging devices is not new, and technically isn't patent-worthy unless you could demonstrate that some aspect of your invention is new and non-obvious. You don't say much about your idea of "filtering and regulation" (and I wouldn't!) but that could be the part that does the trick.
That said, there are lawyers who will charge you a lot of money to get this through the patent office.
As Roddy mentioned in the comments, some schools have provisions like this one at MIT which might end up owning your ass: http://web.mit.edu/policies/13/13.1.html#sub2