The USPTO provides data on applications -- both granted and non-granted -- since 2001. Is there data available for pre-2001 US patent applications both granted and failed?
It appears that Google is crawling the USPTO PAIR site and possibly gathering applied-not-granted data, however, the oldest one is 1998. The PAIR data requires an application number for the search, so does not appear to easily provide a set of all possible patent grants. There is of course the 18 month confidentiality window that limits most recent applications. So, if a 1995 patent fails in the application process, then we are outside that window and might be able to see the original application.