Perhaps going to the original source project at the University may provide calls to the prior art needed. Here is the first named inventor Chris Stolte's old Stanford web site.
Interestingly the diagrams from the patent in question look identical to what is shown in detail in a project at Stanford called "Polaris." Conveniently he describes the novel features and even states they don't think there is much new here except how the data is visually presented in the UI.
Claim #1 seems to be the meat of the patent claims. It claims the systems queries a relational database, multi-sheet spreadsheet (hierarchical structure), constructs a UI table, and then shows the user multiple rows and columns of the data as a "graphical mark" aggregation in a new table/row type UI. Optionally you can create tabs of data which they refer to as "layers." Basically instead of aggregating data via a pivot table and showing numbers this system will instead show icons in a position in a box on the UI. You can see this visualization in this screen shot.
You might sort of recognize such a graph and wonder where you have seen it before. I did and then it occurred to me it is a scatter plot matrix graph which is used very widely in financial analysis and the scientific community but probably not so much in business. SAS Institute's software supports this kind of visualization and has for years.
And SAS even supports an OLAP interface to Microsoft Excel.
Further claims go on to state you can make changes to the color, size, shape, and symbol used which they previously called a "graphical mark." Nothing novel about that. With further claims of using algebraic expressions to filter the data. They can't be doing anything new much here since the data manipulation is going most likely be limited to what SQL and the OLAP or DBMS system can support.
Stanford Polaris Project
The following text is directly from the Stanford site.
Over the last several years, we have been developing Polaris, an interface for exploring large multi-dimensional databases that extends the well-known Pivot Table interface first popularized by Microsoft Excel. The novel features of Polaris include an interface for constructing visual specifications of table-based graphical displays and the ability to generate a precise set of relational queries from the visual specifications. The visual specification can be rapidly and incrementally developed, giving the analyst visual feedback as they construct complex queries and visualizations.
The Polaris interface is simple and expressive because it is built on top of a formalism for describing table-based graphical representations of relational databases. Specifications in this language are compiled by our interpreter into a set of efficient queries and drawing operations to generate displays.