If I shared an idea with someone I trusted, and my idea was stolen by that someone, can I still get my patent back? Assuming I have strong evidence proving this (like e-mails printed/saved prior to the patent being filed for to that person's name, or voice recording or video recordings) can I get that patent cancelled or placed under my name?
The answer is "maybe."
I'm assuming that you are talking about a patent application, rather than a granted patent? And that this was relatively recently?
There are a number of legal paths to do this, including petitioning to the Patent Office to add you as an inventor, suing the person, etc. However, all these paths are quite expensive and time consuming, so think hard about whether it's worth it.