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If one would obtain a patent in the U.S, does it become international? No one else can use/build it without the inventor's permission? Globally In other words, when an inventor obtains a patent in a country(for example the U.S) will it secure the invention globally for the inventors alone?

Also, will a patent exclude a government(international/local) form using/developing the inventor's patent without their permission? And will the legal system support the inventor due to their patent's support?

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Patents are jurisdiction specific. Hence any patent filed in the U.S will protect your invention only in the U.S. Different countries follow their respective law set forth to be taken into consideration for granting a patent.

If you wish to seek patent protection for your invention in multiple countries then you can adopt the PCT (Patent Cooperation Treaty) route. The PCT enables you to seek patent protection for an invention in 148 countries (which are the PCT contracting nations) by filing an “international” patent application. However, the decision as to whether to grant a patent remains under the control of the national Patent Offices.

http://www.invntree.com/blogs/what-are-different-patent-filing-options

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No, a U.S. patent only applies to activities in the U.S. Each country has it own patent system, laws, and courts.

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Even for PCT process: The decision on whether or not to grant a patent on the invention remains in the hands of the national Offices before which the applicant has entered the national phase and a patent is finally granted if the application is patentable under the specific national law.

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