There are a number of issues here. The first is what a "patent" actually is. The second relates to what "having" a patent means.
I've personally submitted something on the order of 80 US patent applications through various employers, with 40+ having been issued, and exactly 0 of them owned by me. What do I say? What do the people in my situation usually say?
A "patent" doesn't exist, as a patent, until the patent is actually issued. I've seen a number of people who list application or internal docket numbers on their resume and claim that they are "patents". When I've interviewed those people, or reviewed their resumes, I make sure they understand the difference between a granted patent, a patent application, and an employer's internal patent docket number. Most people seem to understand what that actually means and why they are important distinctions. Some don't. Such is life. Submitting invention disclosures is a Good Thing for ones career, so be sure to toot your own horn, just make sure you do so accurately.
I have yet to have anyone challenge me, or anyone else I know, who is listed on a granted patent, as "having" a patent. The term I use on my resume is "issued", as in "I've been issued more than 40 US patents", in part so it is clear that the patents have actually issued, because of people who list application and internal docket numbers on resumes. So, I see nothing wrong with saying "I have X issued patents and Y patents pending" where "X" is the number of granted patents and "Y" is the number of applications which have yet to be abandoned. If you have patents pending it is helpful to back that claim up with an application number which can be located on the US PTO website. When I write a resume I pick 4-6 patents and/or applications to list on my resume to show my innovation in some particular area.
What to do in your particular case?
1). Do not claim to have a patent if it has not yet been issued. Do claim to have a "patent pending" if the application has been published, but not yet abandoned.
2). Do list actual numbers -- granted patents and published applications -- on your resume, if you make statements about granted and pending patents. DO NOT describe un-published details as you may be violating a non-disclosure agreement with your employer.
3). After you have more than 4 or 5 patents and published applications, feel free to mention a number ("over 10 / 20 / 30 ...") and present a sampling of granted patents and published applications.
Best of luck in your future job search. Sorry to hear your current employer isn't more appreciative of your contributions.