Prior Art: A system which detects X and makes an alarm
Claim: A system which detects X
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Prior art anticipates if each claim element of the later patent is found in the prior art. Here, each claim element of claim a system which detects X is found in prior art and therefore prior art anticipates claim. So yes, assuming system of prior art = system of claim and x of prior art = x of claim. Without more in the claim it would rejected under 102.