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Patents exist in capitalist systems. Do other economic systems have patents and, if so, what is their purpose in those systems?

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Check out the Wikipedia article on the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). It includes search authorities from countries including China and Russia.

Also, you can search Google Patents for patents from around the world which are often countries with different economic systems (China and Russia as major examples).

Finally, Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is a classification system that has been agreed upon by both Europe and China to improve access to Chinese patent documentation.

And there are initiatives using machine translation to improve cooperation with Russian and Eurasian regions.

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Patent system existed in Soviet Union but IP was owned by the state.

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