Are there any limitations or processes for using a patent in Canada that is registered only in the US?
Are there any liability issues? Would I be infringing?
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With few exceptions, patents apply only to activities within the borders of the countries that issue them. Therefore, generally, a US patent has no effect on use of the patented invention in Canada. The user would have no liability for infringement.
In 2018 the US Supreme Court, in the case of WesternGeco v ION Geophysical Corp, 138 S.Ct. 2129 (2018), said that a patent owner can recover lost profits that they could have made but for an infringer's conduct inside the US that led to use of the patented invention outside of the US. That would be an uncommon situation that is probably not within the intended scope of the question.
Of course, if the invention is or becomes patented in Canada, there could be liability to the owner of the Canadian patent for infringing use.