Are there documents or information made public during a patent application? I am wondering if there's anything made public when you file for a patent application, or if any information is only made public after the patent was granted by the patent office.
It depends on the Patent Office. The patent applications are published 18 months from the effective date (filing date or earliest priority date). When they are published, the Register of the Patent Office can make the prosecution history public, and some or all communications between the Patent Office and the Applicant are made public. Few Patent Offices do not have a public Register.
The British Patent Office also publishes the title of the patent application and the name of the applicant few days/weeks after filing the patent application with the British Patent Office.
At least in the US there is the possibility of making the patent application and its respective documents non-public. I am not familiar with the procedure and requirements, you can find more information about it here.