The general rule (and I am not a lawyer) is that when you work for a company, the company owns your work product. Thus is you invent something while at work, your company owns the invention. They are not obligated to pursue a patent. It depends on your work contract, so you should determine what is in that. Now if they really don't think the invention has merit or isn't in their business interests, then they may be willing to give you permission to pursue it independently. You'll have to ask them.
Note that I used the word invention, not idea. Ideas generally aren't patentable, actual implementations may be. Someone might have an idea of a flying car. That wouldn't be patentable. The actual technical implementation of a way of making a flying car might be patentable if it is novel over prior art. Thus, if you only really have an idea and not an implementation, you could quit and then develop the implementation independently and probably patent that. It gets tricky if you are using proprietary knowledge so you might want to consult with an attorney.
In any case, this has more to do with employment contracts than patents and you might want to pose questions about that on the Law SE site.