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I'm wondering if you can manufacture a product using a patented process in a country where that patent for the process is inactive, and then sell the product of that process in a country where the patent for the process is active? Ie. process X is patented in the US, and produces product Y that is not patented anywhere. Can I manufacture Y using X in China where X is not patented. Then sell Y in the US?

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I don't know (almost) anything about IP law in China, so I will not address those parts of the question.

Then sell Y in the US?

No, it appears that a U.S. patent on a process for producing a product protects automatically also against the importation into the U.S. of products produced by the process:

https://www.nortonrosefulbright.com/en/knowledge/publications/32b3f46e/for-infringement-under-35-usc-271g-must-a-single-entity-perform-a-claimed-process

Naturally, if one produces the same product by a different process, one is not infringing (at least not that particular patent/claim).

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I'm an IP practitioner in China and I'm not a lawyer to give an accurate answer. After seeing your question, I looked up relevant cases. First of all, it should be noted that there are some differences between different fields on this point. If the product is made directly by the method, it infringes. See how to define direct: The following is a direct translation: Article 13 of the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Laws in the Trial of Cases of Disputes over Infringement of Patent Rights stipulates that: "For the original product obtained by using the patented method, the people's court shall recognize it as a product directly obtained in accordance with the patented method as stipulated in Article 11 of the Patent Law. For further processing and treatment of the said original products to obtain subsequent products, the people's court shall recognize that they belong to the products directly obtained in accordance with the patented method as stipulated in Article 11 of the Patent Law". On this basis, Article 20 of the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in Trial of Cases of Disputes over Infringement of Patent Rights (II) further stipulates that: Article 20 For the further processing and treatment of subsequent products obtained by further processing and treatment of products obtained directly in accordance with the patented method, the people's court shall find that it does not belong to the use of products obtained directly in accordance with the patented method as stipulated in Article 11 of the patent law, and that the people's court shall determine that "the use of products directly obtained in accordance with the patented method".

There has been another law, a direct translation: Article 61 of the Patent Law provides that where a patent infringement dispute involves a patent for an invention of a method of manufacturing a new product, the unit or individual manufacturing the same product shall provide proof that its method of manufacturing the product is different from the patented method.

To summarize, in short, the scope of protection of the method can be extended to (direct manufacture of) the product.

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