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Under patent infringement doctrine, there can be infringement under doctrine of equivalents or under means plus function language. The latter is invoked when the claim includes functional language. Functional language is language in the claim that does not describe claim elements nor connects them. In your claim 1, the language “which creates a drag . . .” ...


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Infringement occurs when someone implements each and every aspect of a claim. Thus if the product avoids one step then no infringement occurs. In the example provided if person pulls instead of pushes then there is no infringement. Will the accused product actually be regarded as novel if it pulls? Perhaps you didn't mean the term "novel". ...


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To avoid infringement, you need to implement each and every element in any single claim. Thus if a claim has elements A, B, C and D and your product only implements A, B and C, then you don't infringe on that claim since you don't use D. However if your product uses A, B, C, D and E, you do infringe as you implement each and every element of the claim. ...


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