In theory anything "published" anywhere at anytime in the past is fair game as prior art. The particular issue you bring up is called "Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property" and is a current, important topic in the IP community. This is a link to a discussion at WIPO on it here
Patents that might fall under this category may be very deserved due ...
Don't worry, the USPTO Examiner's weren't born yesterday. You'll find these types of patent applications in the historical patent literature as well, and the modern examination rules account for this.
This patent application received a Final Rejection on March 27, 2015 and was listed as Abandoned on October 10, 2015 (refer to USPTO Public Pair, search on ...
Is it legal for a government/company to own a patent?
In the U.S., it is absolutely legal for a company to own and enforce a patent. Every invention must, of course, have inventors (which must be real persons).
According to the following page, the U.S. government owned 47,220 patents between 1969 and 2008, most assigned to the U.S. Navy:
Yes, Therapeutic methods are patentable as long as there is no prior art disclosure of such method and has supported scientific data.
Therapeutic methods are patentable only in few jurisdictions, US patent system allow therapeutic method claims but Indian and Swiss jurisdictions don't allow please check does your jurisdiction allows such patents.
So your question actually raises two issues, which I will cover separately.
Can I patent a genetically modified animal?
In the US, it has long been practice to allow claims to non-human animals. A clear statement of this is at MPEP § 2105:
[From 1987,] the Patent and Trademark Office would now consider nonnaturally occurring, nonhuman ...
Can this medicine be patented?
Yes. You have said your medicine is new. Given there is no current cure, the medicine is likely non-obvious too. Because of this, your medicine itself could likely be patented. In addition, if the method for producing it is also new and non-obvious (which is likely true for the same reasons), the method could also be patented.
Patent protection is defined by claims, if your device is having all components of patented one then you will be infringing it. Now if patent is active in US then you cannot do said claimed activity in US.
i doubt that personal use comes under bolar provisions.
Even if you use personal design and not the drawing provided in patent and claims cover your ...