I believe that good prior art for the real-time translation of instant messages with push notification is:
Title: Method and system for translating instant messages
Publication Number: US 20030125927 A1
Assignee: Microsoft Corporation
Filing Date: Dec 28, 2001
Publication Date: Jul 3, 2003
Claim 1. A method for ...
There is a work from 2004 (with screenshots). See related works too.
Nair, R., Shiroor, K. and Godfrey, J. “BuzzTrans: Evaluation of a Translating Instant Messenger Client”. In Proceedings of IHCI 2004. http://www.rahulnair.net/buzztrans.html
A method for translating IM messages:
I think I've found prior art. Specifically, an instant messaging tool which can automatically translate the sent message from one language to another.
What is it?
QQ International, which is an "easy to use messenger which focuses on connecting people in China while constantly putting the most useful China-related information into users hands." It ...
Google talk had this at least as far back as 2007, as documented in this blog post: http://blogoscoped.com/archive/2007-12-19-n41.html
Current documentation (undated): https://support.google.com/chat/answer/172257?hl=en-GB
I'm going to add the beginning of another possible set of sources here, but I'd like to know if people think they sound right. The way the the described process basically looks for mix-and-match meaning that web pages have regions, a lot of the regions may be identical, but other regions are different, and then also that they may be somewhat rearranged on ...
From Elin's comment of 1/14/2014:
Information retrieval system and method that generates weighted comparison results to analyze the degree of dissimilarity between a reference corpus and a candidate document
US 6167398 A
ABSTRACT An internet information agent accepts a reference document,
performs an analysis upon it in accordance with metrics defined ...
This sounds the same as Netscape Navigator's "What's Related" feature. This may overlap with their "What's Cool" functionality too. Both of which were present in their Navigator product circa ~1995. Their may be others, but this is at least one patent tied to those features:
"Shared document repository with coupled recommender system" US
A Vector Space Model for Automatic Indexing (1975) by G. Salton, A. Wong, and C. S. Yang.
The first two paragraphs (after the abstract) describe how to compute a similarity coefficient between two documents. The documents are associated with one or more index terms; a weight for each term may be computed according to its importance in the given document; ...