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4

For infringing a claim, all elements of a claim need to be infringed. A claim a + b can either be “at least and b“ (typically) or “exactly a and b“ (for example exactly 40% sparkling water and 60% apple juice, very rare). In your example, at least claim 1 must be “at least a and b“ because else a+b+c would not be a dependent claim as dependent claims are ...


1

I often write claims that might cover essentially the same thing but in different language. It is some protection from a court that might misconstrue some word or wording in one of the claims. Depending on how old the patents you are comparing this with, they might be from a time when “ a portion of “ included a whole of, when “one or more” was never ...


1

I'm not a lawyer but I've worked with several on my patents. There is a lot of art in drafting claims and I don't think this is a particularly new phenomenon. Claim 1 and 8 are not identical. In particular: From claim 1: "...a clutch is retained on said crank shaft, said clutch includes a drive gear;..." From claim 8: "...a clutch is retained on said ...


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