You should not publish until you have a patent application filed, or decide not to pursue patent protection. In my comment, I asked if you are working at a university or if someone is funding the the research. If so, you may not own the invention or may only share rights to it.
Many universities and corporations have their own patent attorneys and can help you both draft an application and devise a patent strategy. Such strategies might include an early patent application filing of the basic invention followed by further applications on potentially novel improvements. With regards to your specific questions.
Can I file a patent application while having incomplete results?
Yes you probably can as long as there is enough there to enable someone skilled in the field to use the invention. It is worthwhile working with a patent attorney to obtain the broadest possible claims.
Should I submit all the computerized raw data alongwith patent
Almost assuredly no. You need to submit enough information to enable someone skilled in the field to use the invention. Reams of raw data is not needed nor desired.
Also, if I want to publish research paper on the patented catalyst later, can I do that?
Assuming you have filed a patent application that covers what you consider to be the invention, you can safely publish your research even if the application hasn't yet published.
By the way, I am not a lawyer and certainly don't have any particular knowledge of the Indian patent system.