This question explains how authenticators like Google Authenticator and Authy are able to generate one-time passwords without connecting to a server.
Are there any patents preventing someone from implementing this in their own app? There is a conspicuous lack of authenticators besides the above two, and that makes me worry.
Additionally, if there are some patents that a basic implementation would be infringing on (such as possibly this one from 2014?), how does one go about getting a license on FRAND terms from the patent holders?